The Orchestral Debut of Unburied, Unmourned, Unmarked: Requiem for Rice

cropped-cropped-cropped-requiem_emailheader.jpg2019 marks the 400th anniversary since African captives were first brought to the United States when a Dutch ship carried the 20 shackled captives to the British colony of Jamestown, Virginia. In honor of this important anniversary, Carnegie Mellon University is showcasing a special Martin Luther King, Jr. Celebration, the Orchestral Debut of Unburied, Unmourned, Unmarked: Requiem for Rice presented by the Colour of Music Festival (COMF) on Wednesday, February 13, 2019 at Carnegie Music Hall (Oakland) at 7pm.

A new report, “Teaching the Hard History of American Slavery,” by the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance Project, finds that secondary schools in the US widely fail to teach a nuanced history about enslavement and enslaved people in the US.  Too often, when the subject is taught, it is “mistaught, mischaracterized, sanitized, and sentimentalized,” leaving students poorly equipped to understand contemporary issues of race and racism.[i]  America’s students are still being taught that enslaved people were brute and not skilled laborers who contributed little to the antebellum economies of the US South.

Yet, West African rice production technology—developed by farmers in the Upper Guinea Coast more than 500 years before the trans-Atlantic slave trade—laid the foundation for South Carolina’s commercial rice industry.  The agricultural skill, ingenuity, and technology of enslaved Africans made coastal South Carolina rice planters the richest planters with the largest slave holdings in the US South.  The floods that fertilized the inland and tidal rice fields also created deadly living environments.  Tens of thousands of enslaved men, women, and especially children perished in the stagnant, cold, mosquito- and disease-infested swamps.

“‘Unburied, Unmourned, Unmarked’ is a new approach to teaching slavery, one that takes the humanities into a new realm. We are taking history off the shelf and putting it on the stage,” said Fields-Black.

Paul Gardullo, curator of the Smithsonian exhibit, said “Unburied, Unmourned, Unmarked” is a powerful demonstration of the role art and music can play in bringing back the memory of people who should have never been forgotten.

 “By breathing life into this history and seeking a way to express not just the horror of racial slavery but the creativity and resilience people of African descent who cultivated crops and shaped the landscape while keeping their lives and culture whole, ‘Unburied, Unmourned, Unmarked’ will fill a massive silence in the history that no book or archive can. This work is a transformative force for truth-telling, for healing, for reckoning and for beauty within and despite pain,” said Gardullo, who also serves as director of the Smithsonian National Museum of African-American History and Culture’s Director, Center for Study of Global Slavery AND Curator, “Power of Place” Exhibition.

“Our ancestors lost their youth, health, lives and children as a result of reshaping the coastal landscape, carving rice fields out of cypress swamps, building earthen embankments and moving as much earth with hand tools and baskets as was displaced to construct the Panama Canal, and engineering hydraulic irrigation systems. Yet, there are no memorials to commemorate their appalling sufferings, involuntary sacrifices or immeasurable contributions,” Fields-Black said.

Conveying this history through a union of classical music, African tradition, and nontraditional musical genres results in a dynamic experience that will take on emotional qualities and be a better teaching mechanism than disseminated material alone ever could be.

Casop: A Requiem for Rice is THRILLED to introduce our composer, John Wineglass

Dear Friends,

We are over the moon with excitement to introduce Emmy award-winning John Christopher Wineglass as the composer for Casop: A Requiem of Rice!


Wineglass is perhaps known best for his film scoring of the popular television series All My Children, for which he has received three Emmy Awards and seven EMMY nominations. A classical violist and self-taught pianist with a passion for jazz and gospel, he has always identified as a performer – evidenced by the fact he has performed for every president since Ronald Reagan and alongside a long list of GRAMMY Award-winning artists including Aretha Franklin, CeCe Winans, Yolanda Adams, Richard Smallwood, Blackstreet, Loris Holland, Bashiri Johnson, Victor and Roy Wooten, and Andrae and Sandra Crouch. Since moving to California, he has performed regularly with the Monterey Symphony as a permanent substitute.

The composer earned a BS in Music Composition from American University in 1994, supplemented by a minor in Viola Performance. Five years later he completed his MA in Music Composition with a concentration in Film Scoring for Motion Pictures and Television at New York University. Wineglass’s acceptance of an internship writing music for All My Children launched his acclaim in the TV and film world. In addition to his EMMY awards he has received three ASCAP Film and Television Music awards. He has composed scores for shows on MSNBC, CNN, NBC, CBS and ABC as well as documentaries, Headliners & Legends with Matt Lauer, and tv shows like American Idol. With most of his experience in the independent film realm, Wineglass held the title of composer and conductor at The Film Society of Lincoln Center’s Silent Film Festival where he debuted his Tired of Giving In and Gabriel Goes for A Walk. You’ve probably also heard his music on nationally broadcasted commercials with the U.S. Army, the American Red Cross, and Texaco.

Wineglass’s experience writing for the cinema, where he contributed to independent films, television, multimedia, and documentaries, made him an expert at writing what music historians call “programmatic music;” he is a master of composing music that tells a story. His decades of performing experience, alongside his classical background, eventually led him back to the concert hall.

Recently, Wineglass has been known for his immersive, collaborative commissions with traditional performing arts groups. In 2012 Wineglass wrote Someone Else’s Child for Narration and Orchestra, which premiered at the Cabrillo Festival of Contemporary Music 50th Anniversary, conducted by the highly regarded Marin Alsop. The piece is orchestrated around poetry written by children detained at juvenile detention facilities in Santa Cruz, CA.

Since then, Wineglass has continued to work closely with specific communities to help facilitate the accurate representation of their people’s history, values, and achievements. A month-long residency at Glen Deven Ranch through the Big Sur Land Trust inspired Wineglass’s Big Sur: The Night Sun, a symphonic tone poem in which he contemplates the vast and profound beauty of the landscape’s mountains and ocean and brings justice to the Indians who lived off the land far before the Europeans arrived and subverted them. It premiered in October 2017, conducted by Anthony Parnther.  Don’t miss San Bernardino Symphony’s premiere of Big Sur: The Night Sun:

Wineglass’s most recent premiere was a commission with the Stockton Symphony, a multimedia collaboration called Sights and Sounds of Stockton. Wineglass wrote the music, which he called “classical and jazz meeting together,” in collaboration with San Joaquin Delta College photography students’ work. Wineglass felt as if he was able to capture the students’ feelings for their city, and all involved were beyond excited to create and perform something so representative of their community.  Take a look at the Stockton Symphony’s season opener and premiere of Sights and Sounds of Stockton (conducted by Peter Jaffe),

On October 27th the San Bernardino Symphony Orchestra will premiere Wineglass’s Voices of the West, which the group commissioned in celebration of its 90th anniversary, conducted by Laura Jackson. The piece will showcase the region’s rich cultural history, incorporating Spanish, Mormon, and African American musical influences while honoring first responders and the juxtaposition of the landscape’s natural beauty and the man-made infrastructure which allow for such a vibrant residential and commercial community.  Share in the premiere of Wineglass’ Voices of the West:

Wineglass’s involvement in our project is exhilarating in the context of his commitment to a such a wide array of community-based orchestral commissions. Furthermore, Casop: A Requiem for Rice strikes a personal note for the composer, as his family roots trace to Beaufort and Georgetown, SC, two important rice-producing regions in the South Carolina Lowcountry.

I’m amazed that I get to take this journey—there are no words!”  John Wineglass

Wineglass and I will immerse ourselves in the rice fields from the end of October until the end of November. We will share our journey on R4R’s website and invite you to join us on the discovery. The experience will inform Wineglass’s writing of the original contemporary classical music score for Casop: A Requiem for Rice, a piece of artistry you will not want to miss!

Won’t you join us for the Orchestral Debut of Casop: A Requiem for Rice and hear John Wineglass’ magic for yourself?!

The box office is open: www.requiemforrice or

Have a beautiful weekend!

Edda L. Fields-Black, Ph. D., Executive Producer and Librettist, Casop: A Requiem for Rice

Sugar and Smoke brings lowcountry faire to Casop: A Requiem for Rice


Sugar and Smoke, Pittsburgh’s newest restaurant, will serve up a lowcountry feast during the Casop: A Requiem for Rice fundraising event.

September 22, 2018, 5-9pm
“Casop: A Requiem for Rice” Fundraising Event 

(Fundraising Event Ticket also includes ticket for 9/21 “Casop: A Requiem for Rice” Choral Performance) Frick Environmental Center, Pittsburgh, PA

The menu includes:
Mini Buttermilk Biscuits/Smoked Andouille Sausage Ettouffe
Black Eyed Pea & Collard Green Crustini — Vegan
Fried Green Tomatoes w/Spicey Remoulade Sauce –Vegan
She Crab Bique w/Creme Fraiche & Chives
Creole Gumbo w/green rice & Fried Okra — Vegan

Strolling Dinner
Shrimp & Grits w/Grilled Peppers, onion, sausage& smoked cheddar
Low Country Smothered “Brown Stewed” Chicken
Grilled Vegetable Jambalaya — Vegan/Gf
Red Beans & Rice (Collard Greens) — Vegan/Gf
Green Rice w/Lima Beans, Peas & Asparagus — Vegan/Gf
Cheddar Jalapeno Cornbread w/Honey Butter

Strolling Dessert
Chocolate Benne Wafers
Grandma’s Lemon Bars
Coconut Cake Trifle
Sweet Potato Tart — Vegan
Cinnamon Rice Pudding — Vegan/Gf


More about Sugar and Smoke

Sugar and Smoke proudly presents our southern cuisine and “white glove” home hospitality from the best of the Carolinas, Louisiana, and Texas.

Our Sugar and Smoke selections features a collection of offerings sure to please every palette including our vegan friends. With selections such as Cheddar Shrimp and Grits or our She Crab Bisque with Fraiche and chives paired with Pinot Grigio. Also dive into our fried green tomatoes, vegetarian jambalaya or creole gumbo designed to satisfy all of your guests.

Let’s not forget Sugar!

Desert features are sure to entice with sweet potato tarts, coconut cake or our delectable Chocolate Benne Wafers.

Visit: Sugar and Smoke, 4428 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15224

Understanding Casop: A Requiem for Rice

fieldworkchild.markedMany of you may have noticed, Requiem for Rice came to a crossroads in 2017.  When we started the project in 2015, the Creative Team envisioned Requiem for Rice as simultaneously a modern take on a classic requiem—in the spirit of Verdi, Mozart, Faure, and Britten—that mourns the souls of the enslaved who died on Lowcountry rice plantations, their bodies unburied, their suffering unmourned, and their sacrifices unmarked for future generations.  As Trevor began to compose, I completed the first draft of the libretto, and we began collaboration on arranging the lyrics, we began to feel as if something was missing. The requiem genre from the European classical music tradition provided a vehicle for the piece to lament and mourn the sacrifices and sufferings of Africans enslaved on Lowcountry rice plantations; but, it left no room to protest the injustices of enslavement, exploitation, and terror, a commercial agricultural system built on the backs of people stolen from West Africa’s Upper Guinea Coast, African genius, African bodies, African labor, African tears.  We thought, there had to be a RECKONING before the REQUIEM.  Casop: A Requiem for Rice was born.

CASOP is pronounced kəsəp; both the “a” and “o” in casop are pronounced like the initial “a” in “cassava” or the “u” in “custard.”

Casop is a funerary tradition among the Diola-Fogny, quintessential rice farmers along the Casamance River of present-day Senegal.  In the event of untimely, accidental, and suspicious deaths, Diola-Fogny ritual specialists performed casop, a “ritual interrogation of the corpse” via spirit possession.  During the funeral, the deceased was asked to tell his or her story about the circumstances of death.  Once the truth was revealed, the dead would be buried and harmony and peace restored to the community.

In Casop: A Requiem for Rice, tens of thousands enslaved laborers on the Lowcountry’s rice plantations and 12 million Africans who endured the Middle Passage, many of whom died untimely, accidental, and suspicious deaths, will speak.  Once the dead have told their story, the lamentation will turn to celebration of the critical role enslaved Africans’ ingenuity, technology, and industry played in the economy of the US South, laying to rest once and for all, the shackles of shame, blame, guilt, and denial that pervade this painful period in our nation’s history.  Casop: A Requiem for Rice reclaims African and African-American history and fosters reconciliation.  

A true marriage between West African and European classical traditions, Casop: A Requiem for Rice is an African-American inspired take on a classic requiem.  By telling the stories of Africans enslaved on Lowcountry rice plantations, Casop becomes a new genre, the vehicle through which oppressed and voiceless peoples from around the world can tell their stories, mourn their dead, and celebrate their contributions to the world.

The Box office opens July 15th for the September 21, 2018 “Casop: A Requiem for Rice” Choral Performance and September 22 Colour of Music Festival’s “Casop: A Requiem for Rice” Black Classical Renaissance Benefit Performance. For tickets, visit

With your support, we can tell this important story!

Edda L. Fields-Black, Ph. D., Executive Producer & Librettist
Trevor Weston, Ph. D., Composer
Julie Dash, Filmmaker
David Claessen, Cinematographer

All ticket sales, corporate sponsorships, and individual gifts will benefit the development of “Casop: A Requiem for Rice.”  For more information about corporate sponsorships and individual gifts, please contact Adam Causgrove, Associate Director of Corporate Relations, Carnegie Mellon University, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, (; 814-397-6388).

Lowcountry Rice in the National Museum of African American History and Culture

Across the world many people are celebrating and rejoicing over the September 24 opening of the National Museum of African American History and Culture. I am overjoyed to have helped the curators in the creation of NMAAHC’s Lowcountry rice exhibit! My first book is titled Deep Roots: Rice Farmers in West Africa and the African Diaspora (Blacks in the Diaspora) — three of my photographs from my fieldwork in Rio Nunez region of Guinea are also in the exhibit!

The NMAAHC is the only national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African American life, history, and culture. It was established by Act of Congress in 2003, following decades of efforts to promote and highlight the contributions of African Americans. To date, the museum has collected more than 36,000 artifacts. Nearly 100,000 individuals have become charter members of the museum. When the NMAAHC opens, it will be the 19th and newest museum of the Smithsonian Institution.

Read more about the NMAAHC.

I was invited to attend the NMAAHC’s Collection Donor Preview & Reception on September 17. The physical structure looks amazing. My first reaction was to shout: “IT’S BEAUTIFUL!”

NMAAHC outside

Here’s a great two minute time-lapse video of the NMAAHC being built over 52 months.

Checking in to the event, with my invite in hand, I stood in line behind Nikki Giovanni and could not help reciting “Cotton Candy on a Rainy Day!”


Here I am in front of the exhibit – so honored to have my photographs included in this important space.


West African/Lowcountry rice is permanently planted at the Smithsonian Museum of African American History and Culture! The harvests it will yield will educate millions about the contributions West African technology, labor and ingenuity of enslaved laborers, and suffering and sacrifices of Africans enslaved on Lowcountry rice plantations.


Rome wasn’t built in a day. Neither was the Lowcountry’s hydraulic irrigation system for flooding and draining millions of acres of rice.


This section is still under construction! I didn’t get to see the rice film after reading the script.


This piece is about the life and work in the Lowcountry.


Africans enslaved on Lowcountry rice plantations sold into the internal slave trade.


The have onsite a Point of Pines slave cabin from Edisto, South Carolina.


NMAAHC Receives Piece of Sea Island History With Slave Cabin Aquistion
NMAAHC Receives Piece of Sea Island History w/ Slave Cabin Aquistion

Speaking of which, here is a great blog post by the NMAAHC that explains the significance of the slave cabin they received with the help of the Edisto Island Historic Preservation Society. The story reveals the palatable intersections of history, people and the people who preserve history for the rest of us. Here’s a video about the acquisition.


So much to see at the NMAAHC. I encourage you all to visit as soon as you can. When you visit, let me know what you think: use #RequiemForRice whenever you experience the Lowcountry exhibit.



Rethinking the end of the commercial rice industry

I ran across this informative article that introduces us to new, mysterious full-color video of African-American men and women reaping rice with sickles in the Lowcountry.

Watch the video and read the full article by reporter Hanna Raskin in The Post and Courier.

From The Post and Courier's July 20, 2016 article "Home movie from the 1940s captures traditional reaping methods at Willtown Bluff"
From The Post and Courier’s July 20, 2016 article “Home movie from the 1940s captures traditional reaping methods at Willtown Bluff”

Historians have described the commercial rice industry ending in the 1890’s as a result of a series of devastating hurricanes. After the Civil War, freed Blacks’ refusal to do “muck work” made repairing the hydraulic irrigation system on which the industry depended (and which was little used during the last years of the war) difficult if not impossible.

New evidence, including this video from Colleton County, should cause us to rethink this position. Commercial rice production may well have continued into the second half of the 20th century and with a free Black labor force. There are many examples of free Black families throughout the Lowcountry growing rice in their farms for consumption into the mid-20th century as well.

What are your thoughts?

My Beginning: Part 4

Editor’s Note: This is the final of four posts where Requiem For Rice Producer and Librettist Dr. Edda L. Fields-Black shares with us how the quest to dig deeper into her own family lineage began. This is the journey that helped to shape the Requiem For Rice.

Determined not to weep in front of the class, I spoke very slowly and took long pauses when I felt my voice breaking up.  I told them there were many African-Americans with the last name Fields, not all were from South Carolina.  Not all African-Americans with the surname Fields were from Colleton County, SC.  But, those of us whose ancestors are buried on Myrtle Grove, Smithfield, and Cockfield plantations were one family, my father’s family.  I was very proud to be descended from them.  I was shocked to learn Ambrose Gonzales, whose work unfortunately defined what Gullah meant for so many in the early twentieth century and still appeared in academic debates on Gullah language and identity, had written his racist theories essentially about our family.  He put his despicable thoughts into my ancestors’ mouths.  Gonzales was certainly a product of his time, despicable times.  Those were his shortcomings, not ours.  The air was thick with disbelief as my wide-eyed students hung on my words.  Then, we moved on and discussed the reading.

After my students and I deconstructed Gonzales, I spontaneously flipped the classroom.  I had forewarned the students they would read aloud from Gullah language texts, but promised that I would not subject them to reading Gonzales’ folktales.  I had planned for them to read from Lorenzo Dow Turner‘s study, the first scientific study of the Gullah language.  Instead, I decided that I would read from Gonzales.  It took some of the power away from his incantations.   I knew the dialogue which he put into the mouths of former slaves from Myrtle Grove plantation was a product of his untrustworthy memory and wild imaginings.  Strangely, though, I felt the familiarity of Anna Richards Frazier, my late great grand-mother, and Jim and Mamie Fields, my late grandparents who first introduced me to the Gullah language and culture.  I felt the warmth of my Cousin Katie (Mother Gillard) who, at 105 years young, keeps the Gullah language alive for and in me.

The irony was not lost on me, the expert on the history of West African rice farmers and enslaved Africans on Lowcountry rice plantations finding her ancestors buried on a rice plantation.

My own family is emblematic of the exploitation, neglect, shame, and loss which are the legacy of enslavement. It is carried by the descendants of Africans enslaved on rice plantations in the South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina rice plantations, sugar, cotton, tobacco, and indigo plantations throughout the New World.

To memorialize and lament the sacrifices and sufferings of Africans enslaved on Lowcountry rice plantations, to celebrate the innumerable contributions to the economy of the US South, and to tell our ancestors’ stories, we need a “Requiem for Rice.”

My Beginning: Part 3

Editor’s Note: This is the third in a series of four posts where Requiem For Rice Producer and Librettist Dr. Edda L. Fields-Black shares with us how the quest to dig deeper into her own family lineage began. This is the journey that helped to shape the Requiem For Rice.

I originally read Ambrose Gonzales through the lens of an academic historian.  Studying Creole languages, I was reading debates among Creole linguists on the origins and nature of Creole languages.  My goal was to acquire interdisciplinary tools to bring something new to my historical study of the Gullah Geechee.

But, I am also a granddaughter and a great-granddaughter.  From spending the last week of August every year from the age of six until my sister went to college, I knew my father’s family in Green Pond.  From driving south on Highway 17 between Charleston and Green Pond as an adult, I learned the highway was built over rice fields as far as the eye Picture1.beching2could see in both directions.  But, I policed the boundary between my academic scholarship and family history to maintain my scholarly objectivity, that “noble dream.”  After encountering my ancestor’s open grave on the rice plantation in Green Pond, this fiction did not matter to me anymore.  As I researched and wrote the history of the Gullah Geechee, highlighting the importance of the experiences of Africans enslaved on rice plantations, I found my ancestors’ graves in plantation cemeteries.  Without looking, I encountered their names and their lives in the plantation sources, and folklore.  The experiences of the great-granddaughter and the academic historian collided, initiating a process that would fundamentally change me as an historian.

With fifteen short minutes before the beginning of my class, it was too late to undo what was now inevitable.  I didn’t know how I was going to stand emotionally naked before my students and discuss a racist rant, which was, by the way, written about Blacks on the same plantation where my family was enslaved, my people.  The show, though, as they say, must go on.  I gathered my files, books, and laptop; I stopped in the ladies room to cry more and try to regain my composure; then, I walked slowly down the long sloping corridors and descended four flights of stairs to the basement classroom.  It was the longest walk I remember taking.  As the students arrived and unpacked their books, they murmured about the readings.  They could not believe that someone could be so racist, that something so racist could be printed and that people would not only read it, but buy it.  Once they settled in, I took a deep breath, closed my eyes, and made my announcement…

My Beginning: Part 2

Editor’s Note: This is the second in a series of four posts where Requiem For Rice Producer and Librettist Dr. Edda L. Fields-Black shares with us how the quest to dig deeper into her own family lineage began. This is the journey that helped to shape the Requiem For Rice.

The standard issue quickly deteriorated, spiraling out of my control, as I began to read folktales from Gonzales’ collection. The first story began, “Joe Fields was the most onery looking darkey on Pon Pon.” I was completely taken aback. When designing my syllabus, I had not thought about Ambrose Gonzales being a descendant of a planter family in Colleton County, South Carolina on the Combahee (pronounced “Cumbee”) River where my paternal grandmother and grandfather traced their lineages. But, I quickly rationalized, Gonzales described this Joe Fields as living on the Pon Pon, not the Combahee. A quick Google search confirmed the Pon Pon was ten miles south of the Combahee as the crow flies. I reassured myself; Joe Fields wasn’t any kin to me.

I wish it could have stopped there, but, I, in my infinite wisdom, had assigned the students to read approximately thirty pages of Gonzales’ folktales. Reluctantly, I continued reading: “Joe, runt as he was, had two sources of pride—the aristocratic lineage of his ‘owners,’ for he had belonged to the Heywards.” Then, I got a taste of Gonzales’ fictionalized version of Lowcountry Blacks’ dialect: “‘Me nyuse to blonx to Mass Clinch.’” He “‘hab him ob’shay, Mistuh Jokok, fuh wu’k ….him hab t’irteen plantesshun ‘puntop Cumbee Ribbuh. Him plant seb’n t’ous’n acre’ rice…..”

“Mass Clinch” Heyward could only be Duncan Clinch Heyward, the governor of South Carolina from 1903-1907 and author of “Seeds of Madagascar.” Heyward also owned Myrtle Grove Plantation from 1910-1918. Nathaniel Heyward who was the largest slaveholder in the US South deeded Myrtle Grove to his grandson Nathaniel Barnwell Heyward by 1851. In the 20th century, Myrtle Grove was merged with Smithfield and Vineyard plantations. Owned by the family of Alice Ravenel Huger Smith, Smithfield was the setting of Smith’s hauntingly romantic and nostalgic watercolors.

None of my academic training about objectivity and emotional distance or my twenty-two years of researching, writing and teaching about West African rice and rice farmers prepared me to see the disgraceful state of my ancestors’ graves on a South Carolina rice plantation.

Green Pond.Cockfield. 9 2013 130 2

In September 2013, while lecturing in South Carolina, I also conducted genealogical research on my father’s family. After a lot of coaxing, my elder cousin Jonas Fields who was the patriarch of Daddy’s family revealed to me our ancestors are buried and were enslaved on a former plantation in Green Pond, S.C. I did not nor could not understand what Cousin Jonas meant when he said our Fields ancestors are buried in “unmarked” graves. When I finally found my way out to the “grow’d up” cemetery in the woods, I could hardly identify their burial sites, little more than depressions in the ground. Family graves marked with tombs and tombstones were in utter disrepair. The concrete slab covering and wooden coffin inside of one of the ancestral graves on my paternal grandmother’s side were cracked wide open by a large tree limb. In January 2014, my Cousin Lloyd Fields, one of Cousin Jonas’ sons, our friends Drs. Travis Folk and Ade Ofunniyin , and I covered our loved one’s grave with a tarp until we could care for it properly (it has since been repaired).

Cousin Jonas passed away in November 2014. He was the last living relative to know where the Fields’ family’s unmarked graves were located at the Green Pond rice plantation and who was buried in them. A few days before his funeral, I went to the Colleton County Genealogical Society looking for information about a nearby cemetery, hoping to find records on which Fields ancestors were buried there and where. Instead, I found a photograph of my great-grandmother Eliza Fields’ grave at Myrtle Grove Plantation, but I did not know then that she was the same Eliza Fields listed on my family tree. At Cousin Jonas’ burial, my cousin Wilfred Fields, another of Cousin Jonas’ sons, confirmed that his grandmother, my great-grandmother, Eliza was buried at Myrtle Grove.  After Cousin Jonas’ burial, family members discussed the Richards/Frazier/Fields ancestors who are buried on Smithfield Plantation. In February 2015, my father’s cousin Cleveland Frazier told me when he was growing up, the elders in Jerusalem and White Hall AME Churches, where generations of our family had worshiped, still prayed about enslavement on Myrtle Grove plantation. The young people, however, did not know what the words meant. As I made final preparations before my class, my mind raced; why hadn’t I made these connections before?

My Beginning: Part 1

Editor’s Note: This is the first in a series of four posts where Requiem For Rice Producer and Librettist Dr. Edda L. Fields-Black shares with us how the quest to dig deeper into her own family lineage began. This is the journey that helped to shape the Requiem For Rice. 
edda fields black
Dr. Edda L. Fields-Black

During the last week of classes, I subjected my undergraduate seminar on “Doing Transnational History” to reading excerpts from Ambrose Gonzales’ Black Border. This text is one of the worst examples of an occupational hazard for an historian who writes about the Black experience anywhere in the world during the early modern period. It is a time period in which texts written by Africans about their own experiences are few and far between. Thus, the overwhelming majority of historical sources are written by slave traders, explorers, and missionaries. Most of them have very derogatory things to say about African people especially their physical appearance, social and political structure, and religion.

My twenty plus years of researching, writing, and teaching about pre-colonial and West Africa, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the African Diaspora had made me a reluctant yet de facto expert on racist material. Ambrose Gonzales’ work ranked among the most racist text that I have had the misfortune of reading in a career that has exposed me to many. To make matters even worse, I was inspired by a faculty seminar on a British actress who was famous during the Enlightenment period to have my students read Gullah Geechee folklore aloud in class and “in dialect”.

The class had been forewarned to be prepared. I thought I was prepared too.

The students had read about Gonzales when they read excerpts from Lorenzo Dow Turner’s landmark study, Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect, and articles by Salikoko Mufwene on the Gullah language and creolization. I rightly anticipated reading Gonzales’ racist theories on the origins of the Gullah language and the folktales he collected—with his fictionalized approximation of Gullah dialogue—would be more than they could stomach. Earlier in the semester, one of my students asked me to put a disclaimer on future readings about enslavement which contained violence—I responded the entire syllabi for most of my African and Diaspora classes would require disclaimers. For Gonzales, however, I gave in and posted a disclaimer about the reading as a Blackboard Announcement:

Dear Class,

I have uploaded excerpts from Gonzales’ “The Black Border.” WARNING, it’s pretty awful (I’ve saved the worst for last!). But, we’ll get through it together on Monday. We will also read some Gullah language texts out loud, but not from Gonzales. I promise. Have a good weekend!

Professor Fields-Black

I thought I had done my due diligence until I settled in to review the readings and prepare for class. On the face of it, Gonzales’ racist rant was worse than I remembered, but about what I expected. He disparaged Western Africa as the “fetid armpit of the Dark Continent” from which “came the first black bondsmen to curse

South Carolina Lowcountry

the Western world.” In describing the peculiarity of a dialect on the West African Coast, which he identified as a precursor of the Gullah language, Gonzales quoted slave trader William Bosman describimg its speakers as “‘Qua-quas,’ because they gabbled like ducks.” He saved his worst diatribe for Africans enslaved in the Lowcountry who he described as “slovenly and careless of speech.” They “seized upon the peasant English” spoken by indentured servants and “wrapped their clumsy tongues about it as well they could, and, enriched certain expressive African words.” Gonzales’ racist theory extended to enslaved Africans’ “flat noses and thick lips,” which acted as anatomical and physiological barriers to enslaved Africans learning to speak standard English:

….with characteristic laziness, these Gullah Negroes took short cuts to the ears of their auditors, using as few words as possible, sometimes making one gender serve for three, one tense for several, and totally disregarding singular and plural numbers.”

I felt a momentary pang of guilt for imposing Ambrose Gonzales on my students. I would have to find a way to turn this into a “teachable moment.”